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A Guide to Viruses and Malware

In today's perpetually online world, malicious software poses a far more formidable risk to both business and individuals than ever before. As criminals and fraudsters continually refine their tactics, it is important to have a basic understanding of the various types of computer viruses and malware that can pose threats to your devices and your data. 

This article aims to fill you in on a few of the various types of malware. By equipping ourselves with knowledge, we can ever more effectively ward off these incoming threats.

Resident Viruses

One of the most prevalent types of computer viruses is the resident virus. These stealthy intruders find their way into a computer's memory, establishing a foothold and being able to infect any program or process that is run on the device.

Polymorphic Viruses

Polymorphic viruses are ever changing and evolving and thus are hard to pin down. These sophisticated threats modify their code each time they replicate, disguising themselves and managing to evade detection by most antivirus programs. As cybersecurity measures become more advanced, polymorphic viruses continue to evolve, presenting an ongoing challenge to both professionals and home users.


Worms are standalone malicious programs that possess the ability to self-replicate and spread across networks without any human intervention. Unlike viruses, which require a host file or program to spread, worms exploit network vulnerabilities and security flaws to spread and execute. Their aims can range from consuming system resources and causing performance degradation to facilitating data theft and compromising system integrity.


Trojans, aptly named after the Trojan Horse, are a type of malware that masquerades as legitimate software, tricking users into installing them on their systems. Once installed, these programs can perform a wide range of malicious activities, most commonly capturing sensitive data but also gaining unauthorized access to networks or even hijacking devices for use in botnets.


Ransomware has emerged as one of the most notorious and financially damaging forms of malware in recent years. Once installed, these programs encrypt a victim's data and hold it “hostage”until a ransom is paid, often in the form of cryptocurrency. Ransomware attacks can cripple entire organizations, causing significant operational disruptions and financial losses.

Adware and Spyware

Adware and spyware are two closely related forms of malware that pose a significant threat to user privacy. Adware bombards users with annoying and unwanted advertisements, often tracking their online activities and collecting data for targeted advertising purposes. Spyware, on the other hand, covertly monitors user activities, capturing sensitive information such as key presses, browsing habits, and login credentials without the user's knowledge or consent.


Cryptojacking is a form of malware that hijacks a victim's computing power to mine cryptocurrency without their knowledge or consent. These programs often embed themselves within legitimate software, and once active can severely slow down the device almost to the point of being unusable, to generate cryptocurrency for the attacker's benefit.

How Malware Spreads

Understanding how these programs can spread is vital if you want to steer clear of them.. Cybercriminals employ a variety of tactics to infiltrate systems and distribute malicious code, exploiting human vulnerabilities and technical weaknesses alike.


Phishing is a social engineering technique that involves sending fraudulent emails or messages designed to trick recipients into revealing sensitive information or inadvertently installing malware. These messages often impersonate legitimate entities, such as banks or trusted organizations, and employ urgency to compel users into action.

Websites and Downloads

Pirated software, unlicensed media, and any site that promises it can be high risk for fraudulent activities and any downloads can serve as entry points for malware infections.

Shared Networks and Removable Media

Shared networks and removable media, such as USB drives or external hard drives, can also help the spread of malware. Infected devices or files can propagate malicious code across shared resources, compromising other systems connected to the network.

In the digital age, the threat of computer viruses and malware is ever present, but by educating ourselves and understanding the diverse array of threats, their characteristics, and their methods of infection, we can steer clear of any nefarious programs. Remember, vigilance and proactive prevention are the keys to staying ahead of the curve.

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